Tamoxifen: An Investigative Review for Nano Dosage Forms and Hyphenated Techniques
Tamoxifen (TAM), a non-steroidal antiestrogen, has revolutionized female breast cancer treatment. The mechanism involves is to compete with 17β-estradiol (E2) at the receptor site and blocking the promotional role of E2 in breast cancer. Tam is a pioneering medicine because of its widespread usage in breast cancer treatment and chemoprevention, as well as research into novel selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). In the vast majority of patients, TAM is cost-effective, life-saving, and free of significant adverse effects. In this context, this review presents several nanoformulations for selectively delivered lower dosages of TAM to breast tumors. Various TAM-containing nanosystems have been effectively created to deliver TAM to particular molecular targets with decreasing harmful effects. Following that, there is a summary of chromatographic techniques to quantify the drug in human biological samples. The quantification of the drug in different biological matrices is the major importance to assist the control of quality, efficacy, and safety.